The Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP) brings together the plans developed under the leadership of national authorities – namely, the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Republic of Iraq, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the Lebanese Republic, and the Republic of Turkey – to ensure protection, humanitarian assistance and strengthen resilience.
The Syria crisis has displaced 4.81 million Syrian refugees into the Republic of Turkey, the Lebanese Republic, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the Republic of Iraq and the Arab Republic of Egypt, and there are an estimated 6.1 million internally displaced people within Syria. Turkey hosts more refugees than any other country – some 2.76 million, accounting for around 3.5 per cent of the population of Turkey. In Lebanon, the one million registered Syrian refugees are equivalent to over 20 per cent of the population, and the 655,000 registered Syrian refugees in Jordan is equivalent to nearly 9 per cent of the population. Iraq hosts nearly 230,000 Syrian refugees, as well as 3.2 million internally displaced Iraqis. Egypt hosts around 115,000 Syrian refugees along with refugees from many other countries.
During 2016, the number of registered Syrian refugees protected by these five countries has increased by almost 200,000 to stand at 4.81 million at the end of November.
Refugees from Syria are losing hope that a political solution will soon be found to end the bloodshed in their homeland, and yet struggle to meet their basic needs in countries of asylum in the region.
Refugees are living primarily in urban, peri-urban and rural areas, with only a minority – some 10 per cent – living in camps. However, despite this geographic integration, refugees face extremely high rates of poverty – 93 per cent of Syrian refugees living outside of camps in Jordan are living below the poverty line, more than 70 per cent of refugees are below the poverty line in Lebanon, 65 per cent in Egypt, and 37 per cent in Iraq. While refugees and host nationals have a similar labour force participation rates, the unemployment rates for refugees are far higher than host nationals given the existing policies.
Weak economic growth, stressed public finances and export disruption have long been major challenges facing these economies, in some cases threatening development gains. In the case of Lebanon, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has fallen by more than 50 per cent since the beginning of the crisis. An average economic growth during 2010-2014 in per capita terms was below one per cent in Jordan and Lebanon and negative in Egypt. In Jordan and Iraq, the additional population pressure has taxed both public infrastructure (e.g. roads, health, water) and private infrastructure (e.g. housing), with the government facing significant pressure to maintain the quality of services and infrastructure. The loss of trade opportunities has dramatically impacted agricultural exports from Lebanon, which account for nearly 15 per cent of exports; Lebanon relies on ground transport through Syria to access markets in Jordan and the Gulf that account for some 60 per cent of these exports.
Over the past year, a number of far-reaching events have accelerated calls for profound changes in the way humanitarian crises are responded to, with a particular focus on Syria. The centrality of using and supporting national systems and local responders is now widely accepted; funding architecture is progressively shifting towards multi-year predictable funding; commitments were made to mobilize the necessary financial resources and domestic political support to create up to 1.1 million jobs by 2018; and private sector actors have signalled their willingness to provide new investment.
The 3RP 2017-2018 was prepared in response to this evolving policy landscape, reinforced by a global commitment to invest in resilience in countries neighbouring Syria. The 3RP continues to be a nationally-led process, incorporating in full the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan (LCRP) and Jordan Response Plan (JRP) and the Turkey, Iraq and Egypt country chapters that have been developed with the full involvement of the respective governments.
Members of Local Communities Direct Beneficiaries